What is Enantyum?
Enantyum is the brand name of a medicine whose active substance is dexketoprofen. It’s an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug prescribed to combat muscle-type pain. It belongs to the family of NSAIDs, that is, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Regarding its origin, Menarini developed, researched and manufactured Enantyum. This pharmaceutical laboratory has been marketing the drug since 1996. In Europe, it is known as Enantyum, but in other countries it’s marketed under different names.
It boasts analgesic and antipyretic effects, and it’s administered in cases of headaches, menstrual pain, muscle inflammation, postoperative pain, and kidney colic, among other problems.
Next, we’ll take a closer look at the following aspects of the Enantyum:
- Mechanism of action
- Pharmacological actions
- Adverse reactions
Mechanism of action: how long is the drug effective for?
Enantyum, thanks to its active principle, has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects. The mechanism of action of NSAIDs is related to the decrease in prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase pathway. Specifically, it inhibits COX-1 and COX-2.
Prostaglandins are a group of lipidic substances derived from fatty acids. These molecules affect and act on different body systems. In addition, they play an important role in regulating various functions of the body:
- They’re involved in the inflammatory response
- They stimulate the nerve endings of pain
- They increase gastric mucus secretion and decrease gastric acid secretion
- They contract the smooth muscles, especially that of the uterus
- They’re involved in the regulation of body temperature
- They control the drop in blood pressure by promoting the elimination of substances in the kidney.
In addition, the inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandins could have an effect on other mediators of inflammation such as quinines, exerting an indirect action that would be added to their direct action.
Enantyum, being an NSAID, has pharmacological actions common to this group of drugs. First of all, and as we already know, it has an anti-inflammatory action, since COX enzymes intervene in this process. These, being inhibited, reduce the inflammatory process.
The analgesic action is a direct consequence of the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. NSAIDs have a peripheral and central antinociceptive action based on the inhibition of glutamate at the spinal and supraspinal level. On the other hand, the antipyretic action of NSAIDs also derives from the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis.
In addition, they exert their action on the gastrointestinal mucosa, since they can cause gastropathies, except for drugs that are selective for the inhibition of COX-2, which isn’t the case with Enantyum.
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NSAIDs also have effects on kidney function that derive from their chronic use. By reducing the levels of vasodilator prostaglandins, renal flow and glomerular filtration rate are reduced. For this reason, this type of drug can counteract the effects of antihypertensive drugs.
Other pharmacological actions associated with these drugs are:
- Hypersensitivity phenomena
- Effects on the appearance of colorectal cancer: there are epidemiological studies that indicate a reduction in the appearance of this cancer
- Platelet antiaggregants
- They prolong gestation
Pharmacokinetics: what happens to the drug in the body?
Pharmacokinetics comprises the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination processes that the drug undergoes once administered. In this sense, Enantyum is administered orally and is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
Once absorbed, the onset of action begins in approximately 30 minutes. However, in urgent situations, it can also be administered intramuscularly, with the effects appearing in less than 10 minutes.
The maximum effect of Enantyum usually appears one hour after oral administration and approximately 20 minutes after intramuscular administration.
On the other hand, in terms of metabolism (the chemical reactions that the drug undergoes in the body in order to become more soluble and thus facilitate its elimination), this takes place in the liver. Specifically, it undergoes glucuronoconjugation reactions.
Finally, once metabolized, both the metabolites and the unchanged drug are eliminated via the kidneys.
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It should be mentioned that aryl propionic acids, which is the chemical group Enantyum belongs to because it has dexketoprofen as an active ingredient, are less gastro-damaging than salicylates, such as aspirin.
In turn, they also have less hematological toxicity than pyrazolones and less neurological toxicity than indoleacetics.
However, like all drugs, Enantyum also has side effects such as:
- Hypersensitivity reactions
- Menarini, L. (2011). FICHA TECNICA ENANTYUM 50 mg/2 ml SOLUCION INYECTABLE O CONCENTRADO PARA SOLUCION PARA PERFUSION.
- Daoudi, M. (2000). dexketoprofeno. Journal of Visual Languages & Computing. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000991
- Chandrasekharan, N. V. (2011). Dexketoprofen. In xPharm: The Comprehensive Pharmacology Reference. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-008055232-3.61574-0